# Descriptive Statistics Calculator

Descriptive statistics calculator with customization options

**Header**: you may rename 'Name-1', 'Name-2', etc.

**Data**: use Enter as delimiter; you may change the delimiters on 'More options'.

## How to use the descriptive statistics calculator

Comprehensive descriptive statistics calculator for numerical data and categorical data. Calculates a variety of statistics, including minimum, mean, standard deviation, quartiles, IQR, number of observations and skewness. Insert one or more columns; the descriptive statistics calculator will calculate the statistics separately for each column.

### Numerical data

Quantitative data, continuous variable or ordinal variable

### Categorical data

Qualitative data, categorical variable

### Choose the statistics that you want to present

#### Numerical data

- Number of observations - the number of valid values
- Minimum - the lowest value.
- Maximum - the highest value.
- Range - the distance between the minimum and the maximum.
- Mean (x̄) - the average.
- Sum - the cumulative total of all the values.
- Standard Deviation (S) - the sample standard deviation. Use it when you have only a sample data.
- Variance (S²) - the sample variance.
- Standard Deviation (σ) - the population standard deviation, use it when you have the entire population data.
- Variance (σ²) - the population variance, use it when you have the entire population data.
- Sum of squares - refers to the sum of the square distances of all the values from the mean.
- Q1- quartile 1, the 25th percentile.
- Median- quartile 2, the 50th percentile.
- Q3- quartile 3, the 75th percentile.
- IQR - InterQuartile Range - the different between Quartile 1 and Quartile 3.
- Skewness - the symmetrical level of the probability distribution
- Skewness shape - text description of the skewness and the p-value of the test for a difference from normal skewness.
- Excess kurtosis - the kurtosis difference from the normal distribution, the Kurtosis measured the level of the tails.
- Tails shape - text description of the kurtosis and the p-value of the test for a difference from normal kurtosis.
- Outliers - using the Tukey's Fences

#### Numerical data

##### Measurements

- Frequency per category - counting occurrences of each value.
- Proportion per category - the ratio of each value from all the values
- Percentage per category - the percentage of each value from all the values (100*ratio)

##### Statistics

- Number of observations - the number of valid values
- Minimum - the lowest frequency (or ratio or percentage) .
- Mode - the highest value frequency.
- Range - the distance between the minimum and the maximum (Mode).
- Mean (x̄) - the average frequency, including the empty values, values that appear only on other variables.

### Should you exclude outliers?

It is important to exercise caution before excluding outliers from any calculation, as they may contain valuable information. However, excluding outliers from a histogram may significantly improve its visualization, even if the outliers are valid observations. If you choose to **exclude outliers**, the histogram maker will generate the chart without them. This method can create a more practical histogram that better represents the distribution of the majority of the data points.